Publication List



Spengler, A., Wanniger, L., Pflugmacher, S. (2017): Oxidative stress mediated toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles after a concentration ans time dependent exposure of the aquatic macrophyte Hydrilla verticillate. Aquatic Toxicology (accepted).


Balsano, E., Esterhuizen-Londt-Londt, M., Hoque, E., Pflugmacher, S. (2017): Responses of the anti oxidative and biotransformation enzymes in the aquatic fungi Mucor hiemalis exposed to cyanotoxins.Biotechnology Letters (accepted).


Märkl, V., Pflugmacher, S., Stephan, D.A. Leaching of PCE-based superplasticiser from microfine cement: a chemical and ecotoxicological point of view. Water, Air & Soil Pollution (accepted).


Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Hertel, S., Pflugmacher, S. (2017): Uptake and biotransformation of pure commercial MC-LR versus MC-LR from a natural cyanobacterial bloom extract in the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis. Biotechnology Letters. doi.10.1007/s10529-017-2348-8


Omidi, A., Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Pflugmacher, S. (2017): Still challenging: The ecological function of the cyanobacterial toxin microcystin - What we know so far. Toxins Reviews (accepted).


Ferrao-Filho, da A.S.; de Abreu,S. Silva, D.; de Oliveira, T.A., Freitas de Magalhaes, V., Pflugmacher, S., Mendes da Silva, E. (2017): Single and combined effects of microcystins and saxitoxins producer cyanobacteria on the fitness and antioxidant defenses of cladocerans. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, (accepted).


Iturburu, F.G., Zoemisch, M., Panzeri, A.M., Crupkin, A.C:, Contardo-Jara, V., Pflugmacher, S., Melone, M.L. (2017): Uptake, distribution in different tissues and genotoxicity of imidacloprid in the freshwater fish Australoheros facets. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, doi. 10.1002/etc.3574.


Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Handel, A.-L., Pflugmacher, S. (2017): Mycoremediation of diclofenac using Mucor hiemalis. Toxicology & Environmental Chemistry. doi.10.1080/02772248.2017.1296444


Märkl, V., Pflugmacher, S. Stephan, D. (2017): Effects of leached cement paste samples with different superplastticiser content on germination and initial root growth of white mustard (Sinais alba) and cress (Lepidium sativum).  Water, Air and Soil Pollution. doi.10.1007/s11270-017-3271-2.


Ongey, E.L., Gassi, H., Pflugmacher, S., Neubauer, P. (2017): Pharmacological and pharmacokinetic properties of lanthipeptides undergoing clinical studies. Biotechnology Letters. doi.10.1007/s10529-016-2279-9


Scholz, S.N., Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Pflugmacher, S. (2017): Rise of toxic cyanobacterial blooms in temperate freshwater lakes: causes, correlations and possible countermeasures. Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, doi.10.1080/02772248.2016.1269332




Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Schwartz, K., Pflugmacher, S. (2016): Using aquatic fungi for pharmaceutical bioremediation: Uptake of acetaminophen by Mucor hiemalis does not result in an enzymatic oxidative stress response. Fungal Biology, doi.10.1016/j.funbio.2016.07.009


Iturburu, F.G., Zoemisch, M., Crupkin, A.C., Panzer, A.M., Contardo-Jara, V., Pflugmacher, S., Melone, M. (2016): Genotoxicity of imidacloprid. A comparison between the individual compound and a commercial formulation in the freshwater fish Australoheros facetus. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, doi.10.1002/etc.3574


Okupnik, A., Pflugmacher, S. (2016): Oxidative stress response of the aquatic macrophyte Hydrilla verticillate exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, doi.10.1002/etc.3469


Vilvert, E., Contardo-Jara, V., Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Pflugmacher, S. (2016): The effect of oxytetracycline on physiological and enzymatic defense responses in aquatic plant species Egeria densa, Azolla caroliniana and Taxiphyllum barbieri. Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, doi.10.1080/02772248.2016.1165817


Pflugmacher, S. (2016): Biotransformation of microcystins in eukaryotic cells - possible future research directions. Mini Review Medicinal Chemistry, doi.10.2174/1389557516666160219130837


Pflugmacher, S., Kwon, K.S., Baik, S., Kim, S., Kühn, S., Esterhuizen-Londt, M. (2016): Physiological responses of Cladophora glomerata to cyanotoxins: a potential new phytoremediation species for the Green Liver Systems. Toxicology and Environmental Chemistry, 98: 241-259.


Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Schwartz, K., Balsano, E., Kühn, S., Pflugmacher, S. (2016): LC-MSMS method development for the quantitative analysis of acetaminophen uptake by the aquatic fungus Mucor hiemalis. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 128: 230-235.


Balsano, E., Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Hoque, E., Pflugmacher, S. (2016): Fungal pellets as potential tools to control water pollution: Strategic approach for the pelletization and subsequent microcystin-LR uptake by Mucor hiemalis. Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology, doi.10.7324/JABB.2016.40403.




Peuthert, A., Kun, L., Baik., S., Pflugmacher, S. (2015): Transfer of cyanobacterial toxins into edible plants via irrigation with lake water- a chinese case study. Aperito Journal of Aquatic and Marine Ecosystems. doi.10.14437/AJAME-1-101.


Flores-Rojas, N.C., Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Pflugmacher, S. (2015): Antioxidative stress response in the floating macrophyte Lemna minor L. with cylindrospermopsin exposure. Aquatic Toxicology, 169:188-195.


Balsano. E., Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Hoque, E., Pflugmacher, S. (2015): Toxin resistance in aquatic fungi poses environmentally friendly remediation possibilities: A study on the growth responses and biosporption potential of Mucor hiemalis EH5 against cyanobacterial toxins. International Journal of Water and Waste Water Treatment, doi.10.16966/2381-5299.101.


Pflugmacher, S. (2015): Green Liver Concept and Green Liver Systems - A sustainable way for future water purification. Aperito Journal of Aquatic and Marine Systems, doi.10.14437/AJAME-1-102.


Pflugmacher, S. Kühn, S., Lee, S.-H., Choi, J.-W., Baik, S., Kwon, K.-S., Contardo-Jara, V. (2015): Green Liver Systems for Water Purification: Using the phytoremediation potential of aquatic macrophytes for the removal of different cyanobacterial toxins from water. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6: 1607-1618.


Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Kühn,S., Pflugmacher, S. (2015): Development and validation of an in-house quantitative analysis method for cylindrospermopsin using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Quantification demonstrated in 4 different aquatic organisms. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 34: 2878-2883.


Romero-Oliva, C.S., Contardo-Jara, V., Pflugmacher, S. (2015): Time dependent uptake, bioaccumulation and biotransformation of cell free crude extract microcystins from lake Amatitlan, Guatemala by Ceratophyllum demersum, Egeria densa and Hydrilla verticillata. Toxicon, 105:62-73.


Okupnik, A., Contardo-Jara, V., Pflugmacher, S. (2015): Single and combined exposure to MC-LR and BMAA confirm suitability of Aegagropila linnaei for use in Green Liver Systems: aA case study with cyanobacterial toxins. Aquatic Toxicology, 165:101-108.


Jung, Y.J., Park, C.B., Kim, Y., Kim, S., Pflugmacher, S., Application of multispecies bioassay to assess the effects of engineered nanoparticles in the aquatic environment: potential of a luminous microbial array for toxicity risk assessment (LumiMARA) on testing for surface-coated silver nanoparticles. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12: 8172-8186.


Romero-Oliva, C.S: Contardo-Jara, V. Pflugmacher, S. (2015): Antioxidative response of the three macrophytes Ceratophyllum demersum, Egeria densa and Hydrilla verticillata to a time dependent exposure of cell-free crude extract containing three microcystins from cyanobacterial blooms of Lake Amatitlan, Guatemala. Aquatic Toxicology, 163: 130-139.


Lee, S., Kwon, K.-S., Ryu, J.C., Song, M.K., Pflugmacher, S., Park, C., Lee, S.H., Park, C.H., Choi, J.W. (2015) Effective treatment of nutrients by adsorption onto the surface of modified clay and a toxicity evaluation of the adsorbent. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 226: 111-116.




Contardo-Jara, V., Schwanemann, T., Pflugmacher, S. (2014): Uptake of a cyanotoxin, beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine by wheat (Tritium aestivum). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 104: 127-131.


Romero-Oliva, C.S., Contardo-Jara, V., Block, T., Pflugmacher, S. (2014): Accumulation of microcystin congeners in different aquatic plants and crops  - A case study from lake Amatitlan, Guatemala. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 102, 121-128.


Downing, S., Contardo-Jara, V., Pflugmacher, S., Downing, T. (2014): The fate of the cyanobacterial toxin beta-N-methyl-L-alanine in freshwater mussels. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 101: 51-58.


Contardo-Jara, V., Otterstein, S.K.B., Downing, S., Downing, T., Pflugmacher, S. (2014): Response of antioxidant and biotransformation systems of selected freshwater mussels (Dreissena polymorpha, Anadonta cygnea, Unio tumidus and Corbicula javanicus) to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L- alanine. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 96: 451-465.


Ha, M.-H., Contardo-Jara, V:, Pflugmacher, S. (2014): Uptake of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin, anatoxin-a and alterations in oxidative stress in the submerged aquatic plant Ceratophyllum demersum. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 101: 205-212.




Hillebrand, M., Pflugmacher, S., Hahn, A. (2013): Toxicological risk assessment in carbon capture and storage technology. Toxicology Letters, 221: 116-116.


Ha, M.-H., Pflugmacher, S. (2013): Time-dependent alterations in growth, photosynthetic pigments and enzymatic defense systems of submerged Ceratophyllum demersum during exposure to the cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a. Aquatic Toxicology, 138: 26-34.


Duong, T.T., Quynh, T.P., Pflugmacher, S., Rochelle-Newall, E., Kein, H.T., Vu, T.N., Ho, C., Dang, D.K. (2013): Seasonal variation of cyanobacteria and microcystins in the Nui Coc Reservoir, Northern Vietnam. Journal of Applied Phycology, 25: 1065-1075.


Ha, M.-H., Pflugmacher, S. (2013): Phytotoxic effects of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin anatoxin-a: Morphological, physiological and biochemical responses in the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum.  Toxicon, 70: 1-8.


Zikova, A., Lorenz, C., Lutz, I., Pflugmacher, S., Kloas, W. (2013): Physiological responses of Xenopus leavis tadpoles exposed to cyanobacteroal biomass containing microcystin-LR. Aquatic Toxicology, 128:25-33.


Contardo.Jara, V., Funke, M.S., Peuthert, A., Pflugmacher, S. (2013): Beta-N- methylamino-L-alanine exposure alters defense against oxidative stress in aquatic plants Lomariopsis lineata, Fontinalis antipyretica, Riccia fluitans and Taxiphyllum barberi. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 88: 72-78.




Lundgren, V., Graneli, E., Pflugmacher, S. (2013): Influence of Acartia cf. bifilosa (Copepoda) on morphology and toxicology of Nodular spumigena (Cyanophyceae). Harmful Algae, 18: 35-46.




Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Pflugmacher, S., Downing, T. (2011): The effect of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) on oxidative stress response enzymes of the macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum. Toxicon, 57: 803-810.


Esterhuizen-Londt, M., Pflugmacher, S., Downing, T. (2011): Beta-N-Methlanino-L-alanine (BMAA) uptake by the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 74: 74-77.


Contardo-Jara, V., Lorenz, C., Pflugmacher, S., Kloas, W. (2011): Exosure to human pharmaceutical Carbamazepine, Ibuprofen and Bezafibrste causes molecular effects in Dreissena polymorpha. Aquatic Toxicology, 105: 428-437.


Lorenz, C., Contardo-Jara, V., Pflugmacher, S., Kloas, W. (2011): The synthetic gestagen levonogestrel impairs metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis by disruption of the thyroid system. Toxicological Sciences, 123: 94-102.


Contardo-Jara, V., Lorenz, C., Pflugmacher, S., Kloas, W., Wiegand, C. (2011): Molecular effects and bioaccumulation of levonorgestrel in the non-target organisms Dreissena polymorpha. Environmental Pollution, 159: 38-44.




Krüger, T., Wiegand, C., Kun, L., Luckas, B., Pflugmacher, S. (2010): More and more toxins around- analysis of cyanobacterial strains isolated from Lake Chaohu (Anhui Province China). Toxicon, 56: 1520-1524.


Contardo-Jara, V., Pflugmacher, S., Netzmann, G., Kloas, W., Wiegand, C., (2010): The beta-receptor blocker metoprolol alters detoxification processes in the non-target organism Dreissena polymorpha. Environmental Pollution, 158: 2059-2066.


Pflugmacher, S., Olin, M., Kankaanpää, H. (2010): Oxidative stress response in the red alga Furcellaria lumbricalis (Huds.) Lamour. due to exposure and uptake of the cyanobacterial toxin nodularin from Nodularia spumigena. Harmful Algae, 10: 49-55.


Picardo, S., Pflugmacher, S. (2010): Study of the antioxidant response of several bean variants to irrigation with water containing MC-LR and cyanobacterial crude extract. Environmental Toxicology, 26: 300-306.


Zikova, A., Trubiroha, A., Wiegand, C., Werts, S., Renner, B., Pflugmacher, S., Kopp, R., Mares, J., Spurny, P., Kloas, W. (2010): Impact of microcystin containing diets on physiological performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis, nitolicus) concerning stress and growth. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 29: 561-568.


Zikova, A., Trubiroha, A., Wiegand, C., Werts, S., Renner, B., Pflugmacher, S., Kopp, R., Mares, J., Spurny, P., Kloas, W. (2010): Impact of microcystin containing diets on physiological performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis, nitolicus) concerning detoxification. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 12:2276-2281.


Hermelink, B., Urbatzka, R., Wiegand, C., Pflugmacher, S., Lutz, I., Kloas, W. (2010): Aqueous leaf extracts display endocrine activities in vitro and disrupt sexual differentiation of male Xenopus leaves tadpoles in vivo. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 168: 245-255.


Schwarz, A., Medeiros, I., Mourao, C., Queiroz, F. Pflugmacher, S. (2010): Phytochemical and toxic analysis of an ethanol extract of Cereus jamacaru. Toxicology Letters, 196: 344-354.


Peuthert, A., Pflugmacher, S. (2010): Influence of cyanotoxin microcystin-LR on tocopherol in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Toxicon, 56: 411-417.




Jos, A., Camean, A.M., Pflugmacher, S., Segner, H. (2009): The antioxidant glutathione in the fish cell lines EPC and BCF-2: Response to model pro-oxidants as measured by three different fluorescent dyes. Toxicology in Vitro, 23: 546-553.


Grigutyte, R., Nimptsch, J., Manusadzianas, L., Pflugmacher, S. (2009): Response of oxidative stress enzymes in charophyte Nitellopsis obtusa exposed to allochthonous leaf extract from beach Fagus sylvatica. Biologija, 55: 142-149.


Contardo-Jara, V., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C. (2009): Multi-xenobiotic resistance a possible explantation for the insensitivity of bivalves towards cyanobacterial toxins. Toxicon, 52: 936-943.




Nimptsch, J., Wiegand, C., Pflugmacher, S. (2008): Cyanobacterial toxin elimination via bioaccumulation of MC-LR in aquatic macrophytes: An application of the Green Liver Concept. Environmental Science & Technology, 42: 8552-8557.


Peuthert, A., Lawton, L., Pflugmacher, S. (2008): In vivo influence of cynaobacterial toxins on enzyme activity and gene expression of protein phosphates in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa). Toxicon, 52: 84-90.


Sipiä, V.O., Franson, J.C., Sjovall, O., Pflugmacher, S., Shearn-Bochsler, V., Rocke, T.E., Meriluoto, J.A.O. (2008): Exposure of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to the hepatotoxic cyanobacterium Nodular spumigena. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 90: 437-444.


Vassilakaki, M., Pflugmacher, S. (2008): Oxidative stress response of Synechocystis sp. (PCC 6803) due to exposure to microcystin-LR and cell-free cyanobacterial crude extract containing microcystin-LR. Journal of Applied Phycology, 20: 219-225.


Kamara, S., Pflugmacher, S. (2008): Effects of leaf extracts on glutathione reductase expression, hydrogen peroxide and glutathione content in the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum. Aquatic Sciences, 70: 204-211.


Nimptsch, J., Pflugmacher, S. (2008): Decomposing leaf litter: The effect of allochthonous degradation products on the anti oxidative fitness and photosynthesis of Vesicularia dubyana. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 69: 541-545.


Grigutyte, R., Nimptsch, J., Manusadzianas, L., Pflugmacher, S. (2008): Effects of decomposing leaf litter from Fagus sylvatica and Quercus robur of different degradation levels on oxidative stress response in the Charophyte Nitellopsis obtuse. Botanical Lithuania, 14: 233-240.


Pegram, R.A., Hubpage, A.R., Neilan, B.A., Runnegar, M.T., Nichols, T., Thacker, R.W., Pflugmacher, S., Etheridge, S.M., Love, A.H., LeBlanc, S., Hudnell, H.K. (2008): Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms: State of the Science and Research Needs. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 619: 317-381.



Pflugmacher, S., Hofmann, J., Hübner, B. (2007): Effects on growth and physiological parameters in wheat (Tritium aestivum) grown in soil and irrigated with cyanobacterial toxin contaminated water. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 26: 2710-2716.


Kamara, S:, Pflugmacher, S. (2007): Acclimation of Ceratophyllum demersum to stress imposed by Phragmites australis and Quercus robur leaf extracts. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 68: 335-342.


Nimptsch, J., Pflugmacher, S. (2007): Ammonia triggers the promotion of oxidative stress in the aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum mattogrossense. Chemosphere, 66:708-714.


Pflugmacher, S., Olin, M., Kankaanpää, H. (2007): Nodularin induces oxidative stress in the Baltic Sea brown alga Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae). Marine Environmental Research, 64: 149-159.


Steven, J., Pflugmacher, S. (2007): Antioxidative stress response of Lepidium sativum due to exposure to cyanobacterial secondary metabolites. Toxicon, 50: 85-93.


Pflugmacher, S. (2007): Reduction in germination rate and elevation of peroxidase activity in Zea mays seedlings due to exposure to different microcystin analogues and toxic cell free cyanobacterial crude extract. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Chemistry, 81: 45-48.


Kamara, S., Pflugmacher, S. (2007): Phragmites australis and Quercus robur leaf extracts affect anti oxidative system and photosynthesis of Ceratophyllum demersum. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 67: 240-246.


Monferran, M.V., Wunderlin, D.A., Nimptsch, J., Pflugmacher, S. (2007): Biotransformation and antioxidant response in Ceratophyllum demersum experimentally exposed to 1,2- and 1,4-Dichlorobenzene. Chemosphere, 68: 2073-2079.


Hoque, E., Pflugmacher, S., Frischer, J., Wolf, M.  (2007): Induction of Glutathione S-transferase in biofilms and germinating spores of Mucor hiemalis strain EH5 from cold sulfuric spring water. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73: 2697-2707.


Vasconcelos, V., Wiegand, C., Pflugmacher, S. (2007): Dynamics of glutathione S-transferases in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to toxic Microcystis aeruginosa cells, extracts and pure toxins. Toxicon, 50: 740-745.



Pflugmacher, S., Jung, K., Lundvall, L., Neumann, S., Peuthert, A. (2006): Effects of cyanobacterias toxins and cyanobacterias cell-free crude extract on germination of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and induction of oxidative stress. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 25: 2381-2387.


Luo, W., Pflugmacher, S., Pröschold, T., Walz, N., Krientitz, L. (2006): Genotype versus Phaeotype variability in Chlorella and Micratinium (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Protist, 157: 315-333.


Timofeyev, M.A., Shatilina, Z.M., Kolesnichenko, A.V., Kolesnichenko, V.V., Pflugmacher, S., Steinberg, C.E.W. (2006): Natural organic matter (NOM) promotes oxidative stress in freshwater amphipods Gammarus lacustris Sars and Gammarus trigrinus Sexton. The Science of the Total Environment, 366: 673-681.


Ame, M.V., Echenique, J.-R., Pflugmacher, S., Wunderlin, D.A. (2006): Degradation of microcystin-RR by Sphingomonas sp. CBA4 isolated from San Roque Reservoir Cordoba - Argentina. Biodegradation, 17: 447-455.


Pflugmacher, S., Pietsch, C., Rieger, W., Steinberg, C.E.W. (2006): Dissolved natural organic matter (NOM) impacts photosynthetic oxygen production and electron transport in contain Ceratophyllum demersum. The Science of the Total Environment, 357: 169-175.


Schmidt, K., Pflugmacher, S., Staaks, G.B.O., Steinberg, C.E.W. (2006): The influence of tributyltin chloride and polychlorinated biphenyls on swimming behavior, body growth, reproduction and activity of biotransformation enzymes in Daphnia magna. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 21: 109-120.


Metcalf, J.S., Morrison, L.F., Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Krause, E., Kotut, K., Pütz, S., Wiegand, C., Pflugmacher, S., Codd, G.A. (2006): Analysis of the cyanotoxins anatoxin-a and microcystins in Lesser Flamingo feathers. Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 88: 159-167.


Pietsch, C., Krause, E., Burnison, E., Steinberg, C.E.W., Pflugmacher, S. (2006): Effects and metabolism of the phenyl urea herbicide isoproturon in the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum L.. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Chemistry, 80: 25-31.




Nimptsch, J., Wunderlin, D.A., Dollan, A., Pflugmacher, S. (2005): Antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes in Myriophyllum quitense as biomarkers of heavy metal exposure and eutrophication in Suquia River basin (Cordoba, Argentina). Chemosphere, 61: 147-157.


Luo, W., Krienitz, L., Pflugmacher, S., Walz, N. (2005): Genus and species concept in Chlorella and Micractinium (Chlorophytea, Chlorellaceae): fenotype versus phenotypical variability under ecosystem conditions. Verhandlungen des Internationalen Vereins Limnologie, 29: 170-173.


Melone, M.L., Pflugmacher, S. (2005): Effects of 3-chlorobiphenyl on photosynthetic oxygen production, glutathione content and detoxication enzymes in the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum. Chemosphere, 60: 79-84.


Wiegand, C., Pflugmacher, S. (2005): Ecotoxicological effects of selected cyanobacterias secondary metabolites - A short review. Toxicological and Applied Pharmacology, 203: 201-218.


Ballot, A., Krienitz, L., Kotzt, K., Wiegand, C., Pflugmacher, S. (2005): Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterias toxins in the alkaline crater lakes Sonachi and Simbi, Kenya. Harmful Algae, 4: 139-150.


Schmidt, K., Staaks, G.B.O., Pflugmacher, S., Steinberg, C.E.W. (2005): Impact of PCB mixture (Arochlor 1254) and TBT and a mixture of both on swimming behavior, body growth and enzymatic biotransformation activities (GST) of young carp (Cyprinus carpio). Aquatic Toxicology, 71: 49-59.


Pflugmacher, S. Wiegand, C., Werner, S., Schröder, H., Kankaanpää, H. (2005): Activity and substrate specificity of cytosolic and microsomal glutathione S-transferase in Australian Black Tiger Prawns (Penaeus monodon) after exposure to cyanobacterias toxins. Environmental Toxicology, 20: 301-307.


Baganz, D., Siegmund, R., Staaks, G.O.B., Pflugmacher, S., Steinberg, C.E.W. (2005): Temporal pattern in swimming activity of two fish species (Daniel rerio and Leucaspius delineatus) under chemical stress conditions. Biological Rhythm Research, 36: 263-276.


Melone, M.L., Steinberg, C.E.W., Pflugmacher, S. (2005): Evaluation of photosynthetic oxygen production, pigment pattern, glutathione content and detoxication enzyme activity in the aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum exposed to cypermethrin. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Chemistry, 79: 77-82.


Nimptsch, J., Pflugmacher, S. (2005): Substrate specificity of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase in five different species of the aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum. Journal of Applied Botany and Food Chemistry, 79: 94-99.


Schmidt, K., Pflugmacher, S., Staaks, G.B.O., Steinberg, C.E.W., (2005): Effects of subacute PCB-exposure (Arochlor 1254) on oxygen consumption, swimming behavior and biotransformation (GST activity) in carp (Cyprus carpio). Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoffforschung, 17: 133-145.


Schmidt, K., Steinberg, C.E.W:, Staaks, G.B.O., Pflugmacher, S. (2005): Influence of a xenobiotic mixture (PCB and TBT) compared to single substances on swimming behavior or reproduction of Daphnia magna. Acta Hydrochimica et Hydrobiologica, 33: 287-300.


Wu, Q., Riise, G., Pflugmacher, S., Greulich, K., Steinberg, C.E.W. (2005): Combined effects of the fungicide propiconazole and agricultural runoff sediments on the aquatic bryophyte Vesicularia dubyana. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 24: 2285-2290.


Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Casper, P., Kotzt, K., Wiegand, C., Pflugmacher, S. (2005): Cyanobacteria in hot springs of East Africa and their potential toxicity. Algological Studies, 117: 1-10.


Cazenave, J., Wunderlin, D.A., DelosAngeles Bistoni, M., Ame, M.V., Krause, E., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C. (2005): Uptake, tissue distribution and accumulation of microcystin-RR in Corydoras paleatus, Jenynsia multidentata and Odontesthes bonariensis. A field and laboratory study. Aquatic Toxicology, 75: 178-190.


Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Casper, P., Code, G.A., Kotzt, K., Metcalf, J.S., Morrison, L.F:, Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C. (2005): Contribution of toxic cyanobacteria to the mysterious death of Lesser flamingos at saline-alkaline lakes of Kenya. Verhandlungen des Internationalen Verein Limnologie, 29: 783-786.



Pflugmacher, S. (2004): Promotion of oxidative stress in C. demersum due to exposure to cyanobacterial toxin. Aquatic Toxicology, 3: 169-178.


Barganz, D., Staaks, G.O.B., Pflugmacher, S., Steinberg, C.E.W. (2004): A comparative study on microcystin-LR induced behavioral changes of two fish species (Danio rerio and Leucaspius delineatus). Environmental Toxicology, 19: 564-570.


Greulich, K., Pflugmacher, S. (2004): Uptake and effects on detoxication enzymes of cypermethrin in embryos and tadpoles of amphibians. Archives of Environmental Toxicology, 47: 489-495.


Nogueira, I.C.G., Saker, M.L., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C., Vasconcelos, V. (2004): Toxicity of the cyanobacterium Cylindospermosin raciborskii to Daphnia magna. Environmental Toxicology, 19: 453-459.


Nogueira, I.C.G., Pereira, P., Dias, E., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C., Franca, S., Vasconcelos, V.M. (2004): Accumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) from the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi by the cladoceran Daphnia magna. Toxicon, 44: 773-780.


Schmidt, K., Steinberg, C.E.W., Pflugmacher, S., Steaks, G.B.O. (2004): Xenobiotic substances such as PCB mixtures (Arochlor 1254) and TBT can influence swimming behavior and biotransformation activity (GST) of carp (Cyprus carpio). Environmental Toxicology, 19: 460-470. 


Timofeyev, M.A., Wiegand, C., Burnison, B.K., Shatilina, Z.M., Pflugmacher, S., Steinberg, C.E.W. (2004): Impact of natural organic matter (NOM) on freshwater amphipods. The Science of the Total Environment, 319: 115-121.


Vogt, R.D., Akkanen, J., Andersen, D.O., Brüggemann, R., Chatterjee, B., Gjessing, E., Kukkonen, J.V.K., Larsen, H.E., Luster, J., Paul, A., Pflugmacher, S., Starr, M., Steinberg, C.E.W., Schmitt-Kopplin, P., Zsolnay, A. (2004): Key site variables governing the functional characteristics of dissolved natural organic matter (DOM) in Nordic forested catchments. Aquatic Sciences, 66: 195-210.


Mitrovic, S.M., Pflugmacher, S., James, K.J., Furen, A. (2004): Anatomin-a elicits an increase in peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activity in aquatic plants. Aquatic Toxicology, 68:185-192.


Ballot, A., Krienitz, L., Kotzt, K., Wiegand, C., Metcalf, J.S., Codd, G.A., Pflugmacher, S. (2004): Cyanobacteria and cyanobacterial toxins in three alkaline Rift Valley lakes of Kenya - Lake Bogota, Nakuru and Elmenteita. Journal of Plankton Research, 26: 925-935.


Steinberg, C.E.W., Höss, S., Kloas, W., Lutz, I., Meinet, T., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C. (2004): Hormonlike effects of humid substances on amphibians and invertebrates. Environmental Toxicology, 19: 409-411.




Karlsson, K., Sipiä, V., Krause, E., Meriluoto, J., Pflugmacher, S: (2003): Mass spectrometric detection and quantification of nodular-R in flounder livers. Environmental Toxicology, 18: 284-288.


Greulich, K., Pflugmacher, S. (2003): Differences in susceptibility of various life stages of amphibians to pesticide exposure. Aquatic Toxicology, 65: 329-336.


Lehtonen, K.K., Kankaanpää, H., Leinio, S., Sipiä, V., Pflugmacher, S., Sandberg-Kilpi, E. (2003): Accumulation of nodularin-like compounds from the cyanobacterium Nodular spumigena and changes in acetylcholinesterase activity in the clam Macoma baltica during short-term laboratory exposure. Aquatic Toxicology, 64: 461-476.


Code, G.A., Metcalf, J., Morrison, L.F., Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Pflugmacher, S., Wiegand, C., Kotzt, K. (2003): Susceptibility of flamingos to cyanobacterial toxins via feeding. Veterinary Report, 152: 722-723.


Ballot, A. Pflugmacher, S. Wiegand, C., Kotzt, K., Krientitz, L. (2003): Cyanobacterial toxins in Lake Baringo, Kenya. Limnological, 33: 2-9.


Steinberg, C.E.W., Paul, A., Pflugmacher, S., Meinet, T., Klöcking, R. Wiegand, C. (2003): Pure humic substances have the potential to act as xenobiotic chemicals - A review. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 12: 391-401.


Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Kotzt, K., Wiegand, C:, Putz, S., Metcalf, J.S., Codd, G.A., Pflugmacher, S (2003): Contribution of hot spring cyanobacteria to the mysterious deaths of Lesser flamingos at Lake Bogota, Kenya. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 43: 141-148.


Beattie, K.A., Kessler, J., Wiegand, C., Krause, E., Code, G.A., Steinberg, C.E.W., Pflugmacher, S. (2003): Comparative effects and metabolism of two microcystins and nodular in the brine shrimp Artemia salina. Aquatic Toxicology, 62: 219-226.



Krienitz, L., Ballot, A., Wiegand, C., Kotzt, K., Code, G.A., Pflugmacher, S. (2002): Cyanotoxin-producing bloom of Anabaena flos-aquae, Anabaena discoidea and Microcystis aeruginosa (Cyanobacteria) in Nyanza Gulf of Lake Victoria, Kenya. Journal of Applied Botany - Angewandte Botanik, 76: 179-183.